Bottle Attributes - Beer Bottle Closures

The closure used on a bottle can say something about a bottle's age.  Regional preferences and traditions help to dictate what closures were popular and for how long. Patented stoppers can be no earlier than the submission and most were not used for very many years.

There were a great number of patented closures for beer bottles, but few were used and even fewer were successful.  All of the closures shown below were actually used on beer bottles.  Those closure that were used on more than 100 different beer bottles are in the first set by earliest year of use or patent date:

Cork Closure with String Cork, circ: pre-1600-1905,
By far the most common closure used on beer bottles until about 1880 when the Lightning stopper became standard. Initially, a string or wire was used to secure the cork to the bottle. Later, a wire bail became the standard. Some bottlers still used corks into the Twentieth Century, usually on export shaped bottles.  Corks for beer bottles were about one inch long.  Example shows string used to retain a cork in the bottle.
Putnam Closure Putnam Closure, circ: 1859-1905,
Invented by: Henry William Putnam,
American Patent: March 15, 1859, Number: 23,263,
American Patent Reissued: January 19, 1864, Reissue Number: 1,606,

This cork fastener was the standard used on corked beer bottles during the1860s and 1870s when it was replaced with the Lightning stopper. The bail was reusable and the bottler was not required to rewire the cork with every refilling of the bottle.
Lightning Closure Lightning Closure, circ: 1875-1910,
Invented by: Charles De Quillfeldt,
American Patent: January 5, 1875, Number: 158,406,
American Patent Reissued: June 5, 1877, Reissue Number: 7,722,

This stopper revolutionized beer bottling and was an almost instant success for Karl Hutter who acquired the patent rights and popularized this stopper when it was reissued in 1877. In 1878, Henry Putnam also acquired and interest in this stopper and in 1882 adapted it for use on fruit jars. There were many imitators of this patent over the years, but they all worked on the same principle of leveraging a rubber disk into the lip of the bottle to make a seal.
 Bottle Seal Closure Bottle Seal or Baltimore Loop Seal Closure, circ: 1885-1905,
Invented by: William Painter,
American Patent: September 29, 1885, Number: 327,099,

This stopper enjoyed moderate success, but was more popular in some areas of than in others.  It consisted of a disk, made of a flexible material, that was inserted into a thin groove in the lip of the bottle.  It was replaced by Painter's more popular crown cork stopper.
 Crown Cork Seal Closure Crown Cork Seal Closure, circ: 1892-1920,
Invented by: William Painter,
American Patent: February 2, 1892, Number: 468,226,

This stopper did not enjoy immediate success.  It consisted of a metal cap that had a crimpled edge that when compressed secured the cap to a specially designed lip.  A cork liner prevented contamination of the contents from the metal cap.  By Prohibition, it was the standard as it was easily adapted to automated bottling lines.
Hutter Closure Hutter Closure, circ: 1893-1920,
Invented by: Karl Hutter,
American Patent: February 7, 1893, Number 491,113,

American Patent: June 16, 1896, Number 562,225,
American Patent: April 13, 1897, Number 580,456,

This stopper was an improvement to the Lightning stopper and was extremely popular and eventually replaced the Lightning as the preferred beer bottle stopper. A tapered porcelain plug was fitted with a rubber washer on the bottom and forced into the lip of the bottle to seal it. This stopper was replaced with the crown cork.

The following closures achieved moderate market success and were used on between 5 and 100 different bottles:

 ABC Closure ABC Closure, circ: 1864-1867, Occurs on 11 bottles, Show distribution map of bottles with the ABC closure Put bottles using the ABC closure on a shelf
Invented by: Josiah Beard and Moses Fairbanks,
American Patent: December 6, 1864, Number 45,373,
American Patent: March 7, 1865, Number 46,658,
An early stopper that consisted of a hollow soft rubber ball that was pulled into the neck of the bottle.  The patent was assigned to the Automatic Bottle Closing Company of New Haven, Connecticut and all known bottles bear the "A. B. C. Co." embossing.  These bottles are distinctive in shape and are also marked with the patent date.  A number of different bottlers experimented with this closure, but none adopted it.
 Kutscher closure Kutscher 1869 Closure, circ: 1869-1890, Occurs on 11 bottles, Show distribution map of bottles with the Kutscher closure Put bottles using the Kutscher closure on a shelf
Invented by: Frederick Kutscher,
American Patent: June 15, 1869, Number: 91,349,

This closure was a basically flipped over the top of the bottle and snapped on to the tie wire on the neck.  This closure was initially used on glass weiss beer bottles on the East coast, close to its inventors home in New Haven, Connecticut.  However, it was used much later to about 1890 on pottery beer bottles from Wisconsin.
 Matthews 1872 Closure Matthews 1872 Closure, circ: 1872-1878, Occurs on 20 bottles, Show distribution map of bottles with the Matthews 1872 closure Put bottles using the Matthews 1872 closure on a shelf
Invented by: Joseph Connor,
Improvement by: John Matthews,
American Patent: June 11, 1872, Number: 127,851,

American Patent: January 25, 1876, Number: 172,757,
This was a form of cork fastener, with a modification by John Matthews that used a rubber and metal stopper.  These were used on lager beer bottles.  It was used only in the metro New York and Philadelphia areas.  Bottles usually have the Matthews name and the patent date embossed on the base and can be identified by the unique bulge in the neck just below the lip.  It was replaced by the Lightning stopper.
Schlich Closure Schlich Closure, circ: 1874-1885, Occurs on 10 bottle, Show distribution map of bottles with the Schlich closure Put bottles using the Schlich closure on a shelf
Invented by: Frederick Schlich,
American Patent: September 5, 1865, Number: 49,793,
American Patent: February 28, 1871, Number: 112,185,
American Patent: July 21, 1874, Number: 153,380,

This closure was perfected over nearly ten years by Frederick Schlich of New York City.  The stopper consisted of a metal stopper with a rubber covering that was forced into the mouth of the bottle.  Although Schlich's patent preceded the Lightning stopper by ten years, without a cam, it could not compete and did not achieve market success.
 Fritzner closure Fritzner 1880 Closure, circ: 1880-1920, Occurs on 36 bottles, Show distribution map of bottles with the Fritzner closure Put bottles using the Fritzner closure on a shelf
Invented by: Nicolay Fritzner,
American Patent: July 13, 1880, Number: 229,815,

This closure was a variation of the Lightning closure with the difference that the eccentric was mounted in a glass dimple in the lip instead of on a mounting wire.  The patent deals with filling these bottles, but also identifies this new configuration of the eccentric.  This was used mainly on pottery ginger beer bottles of later vintage.
Rich Closure Rich Closure, circ: 1882-1885, Occurs on 5 bottles, Show distribution map of bottles with the Rich closure Put bottles using the Rich closure on a shelf
Invented by: Augustus E. Rich,
American Patent: January 10, 1882, Number: 252,059,

This closure was marketed by the Champion Stopper Manufacturing Company of Greenfield, Massachusetts.  The stopper was based on earlier patents and closed by tightened by pressing the lever tight.
 Riley Closure Riley Screw Closure, circ: 1885-1915, Occurs on 11 bottles, Show distribution map of bottles with the Riley closure Put bottles using the Riley closure on a shelf
Invented by: Frederic George Riley,
English Patent: July 7, 1885, Number: 8,198,

This closure was another English import that never became successful.  Riley improved the inside screw stopper by adding a protrusion to the top of the stopper that allowed for easier opening.
Lloyd Closure Lloyd Closure, circ: 1885-1895, Occurs on 10 bottle, Show distribution map of bottles with the Llyods 1885 closure Put bottles using the Lloyd closure on a shelf
Invented by: Edwin L. Lloyd,
American Patent: August 25, 1885, Number: 325,181,

This closure was a variation of bailed closures.  The stopper was attached to the bail via a loop on it.  This stopper was only used on beer bottles.
Fullerton Closure Fullerton Closure, circ: 1887-1890, Occurs on 5 bottles, Show distribution map of bottles with the Fullerton closure Put bottles using the Fullerton closure on a shelf
Invented by: George A. Fullerton,
American Patent: November 29, 1887, Number 373,973,
American Patent: October 2, 1888, Number 390,586,

Bottles that used this closure are identified by the unique "L" shaped indentations on the lip of the bottle.  The closure consists of a sheet metal bail whose eccentric slid into the groove in the lip.  The patent was assigned to the Facile Bottle Stopper Company of New York, New York, which is marked on some of the bottles.  The patent drawing shows a square mark on the base of the bottle, which is present on some of the known examples, but is not explained by the patent..
 Aluminum Seal Closure Aluminum Seal Closure, circ: 1895-1903, Occurs on 25 bottles, Show distribution map of bottles with the Aluminum Seal closure Put bottles using the Aluminum Seal closure on a shelf
Invented by: Robert Allison Hall,
American Patent: June 18, 1895, Number: 541,203,

This stopper was mainly used in the metro Baltimore area and was a competitor to William Painter's Bottle Seal closure.  However, unlike the Bottle Seal there were two sizes as seen on some of quart sized bottles.  The groove on the inside of the lip is very close to the top and is not as angular as the Bottle Seal.  Painter successfully sued Hall in 1903 and won.
Thatcher 1901 Closure Thatcher 1901 Closure, circ: 1901-1910, Occurs on 24 bottles, Show distribution map of bottles with the Thatcher 1901 closure Put bottles using the Thatcher 1901 closure on a shelf
Invented by: Frederick B. Thatcher,
American Patent: October 15, 1901, Number 684,476,

This stopper was an improvement on the Lightning closure with a wire bail and eccentric.  The difference is that there were two loops on the side of the stopper that accepted the eccentric.  One Boston bottler had his name impressed on the top of the closure.  The closure appears to have had more success in the New England market as Thatcher was from Providence Rhode Island.
 Universal Seal Closure Universal Seal Closure, circ: 1901-1905, Occurs on 16 bottles, Show distribution map of bottles with the Universal Seal closure Put bottles using the Universal Seal closure on a shelf
Invented by: Edward D. Schmitt,
American Patent: October 22, 1901, Number: 685,226,

This stopper was only used in the metro Baltimore and Philadelphia areas and was replaced by the crown cork seal closure.  Most of the bottles were used by the Gottlieb Bauerschmidt Straus Brewing Company of Baltimore.  It appears to have been used experimentally by the few bottles.  Some of the bottles are marked Universal Seal & Stopper Co. of Baltimore on the base and all have a large tapered groove in the lip, which often flares out, with a small ledge at its base.
Phoenix Closure Phoenix Closure, circ: 1902-1910, Occurs on 41 bottle, Show distribution map of bottles with the Phoenix closure Put bottles using the Phoenix closure on a shelf
Invented by: Alfred L. Weissenthanner,
American Patent: July 22, 1902, Number 705,173,

This stopper of a metal cap that was secured to a specially formed lip on the bottle, which is an exaggerated square collar.  This closure found some success at Midwestern breweries.
Strebel's Globe Closure Strebel's Globe Closure, circ: 1903-1920, Occurs on 9 bottles, Show distribution map of bottles with the Strebel closure Put bottles using the Strebel closure on a shelf
Invented by: Louis Strebel,
American Patent: April 14, 1903, Number 725,505,

This stopper was a slight deviation from the Hutter closure.  Instead of the inverted cone shaped porcelain stopper of Hutter, this one has a rounded top.  This was an accommodation for Strebel's bottling machine patented number 723,065 on March 17, 1903.  According to the patent, the stopper was meant for carbonated beverages or for use on bottles that used the Hutter stopper.  The stopper was advertised as the "Globe" and together with his bottling machine were advertised as late as 1915.  

The following closures were used to seal beer bottles, but never achieved and level of success or market penetration. They occur on from 1 to 5 bottles. Some were only used by the inventor.

Cronk Closure Cronk Closure, circ: 1858-1860, Occurs on 1 bottle, Show distribution map of bottles with the Cronk closure Put bottles using the Cronk closure on a shelf
Invented by: Munson C. Cronk,
American Patent: July 6, 1858, Number 20,778,
An early closure that was used to empty and reseal bottles.  It was described as a faucet that was controlled by a screw on cap to empty the contents.  Although described as a closure for mineral water bottles, the only known bottle is a pottery mead bottle.  These bottles are identical in shape to the standard mead bottles with a ledge in the neck of the bottle, as reflected in the patent drawings. Munson Cronk, the inventor, was the sole user.
Whitnet Inside Screw Closure Whitney Inside Screw Closure, circ: 1861-1865, Occurs on 2 bottles, Show distribution map of bottles with the Whitney closure Put bottles using the Whitney Inside Screw closure on a shelf
Invented by: S. A. Whitney,
American Patent: January 1, 1861, Number: 31,046,

This closure consisted of a glass stopper that screwed into the lip of the bottle, which had matching threads.  The stopper only occurs on one beer bottle, but enjoyed considerably more success on whiskey bottles. 
Castner Closure Castner Closure, circ: 1865-1870, Occurs on 1 bottle, Show distribution map of bottles with the Castner closure Put bottles using the Castner closure on a shelf
Invented by: Unknown,
American Patent: Unknown,

This closure a bail with a cast top.  The stopper only occurs on one Castner beer bottle from Changewater, NJ.
Vom Hofe Closure Vom Hofe Closure, circ: 1875-1880, Occurs on 2 bottle, Show distribution map of bottles with the Vom Hofe closure Put bottles using the Von Hofe closure on a shelf
Invented by: William Vom Hofe,
American Patent: May 18, 1875, Number: 163,553,

American Patent: August 24, 1875, Number: 167,141,
This patent was the first in a long series of levered or pump handled stoppers.  William Vom Hofe of New York City was issued his first patent of this design in May of 1875 and quickly followed it up with improvements that manifested in his August 1875 patent.  It is unlikely many of the earlier patent design made it past the prototype stage. There were a number of very similar pump handled patents of similar style that were patented over the next twenty-five years and caution should be used before attributing this patent to a specific closure.
Bates Closure Bate's Closure, circ: 1875-1880, Occurs on 1 bottle, Show distribution map of bottles with the Bates closure Put bottles using the Bates closure on a shelf
Invented by: Wallace H. Bate,
American Patent: September 14, 1875, Number: 167,633,

This patent was awarded to Wallace H. Bate of Norwood, Massachusetts.  The approach was to use a cam lever, secured under the lip by a wire, that would force the rubber lined stopper into the mouth of the bottle.  This would have been an early competitor to the Lightning stopper, patented a mere 8 months prior.  Part of the rights to this patent were assigned to Mathias Radermacher of Boston, who appears to be the sole user of this stopper. 
Whitman Closure Whitman Closure, circ: 1878-1880, Occurs on 1 bottle, Show distribution map of bottles with the Whitman closure Put bottles using the Whitman closure on a shelf
Invented by: William G. Whitman,
American Patent: April 9, 1878, Number: 202,320,

This patent was applied for nearly a year before it was issue to William Whitman of Chicago, Illinois.  The stopper consisted of a metal stopper with a rubber covering that was forced into the mouth of the bottle by a lever that resembles a pump handle.  Part of the rights to this patent were assigned to John A. Lomax, the major bottler in Chicago, and a Martin I. Whitman, also of the same place. This stopper never met with much success, but should be found on other Upper Midwestern bottles.
Smith Closure Smith Closure, circ: 1878-1880, Occurs on 1 bottle, Show distribution map of bottles with the Whitman closure Put bottles using the Whitman closure on a shelf
Invented by: Thomas S. Smith,
American Patent: December 3, 1878, Number: 210,438,

This patent was one of many issued in the second half of the 1870s that were based on some sort of cam lever that would pressure the stopper into the mouth of the bottle.  These were to compete with the Lightning Stopper, patented in 1875and dominating the marketplace.  This stopper is only known on one one bottle used by G. W. & C. R. Miller of Boston.  Graci attributes this stopper to the James T. Walker of Troy, NY and his April 14, 1885 patent number 315,576.  The Millers were listed in the 1876 thru 1885 Boston Directories.  Since the business ended the same year of Walker's patent and the patent drawings of Smith's stopper more closely match the Miller bottle.  I am attributing it to the ealier patent. Needless to say this patent did not meet with much success.
Putnam Magic Closure Putnam Magic Closure, circ: 1880-1890, Occurs on 2 bottle, Show distribution map of bottles with the Putnam Magic closure Put bottles using the Putnam Magic closure on a shelf
Invented by: Henry W. Putnam,
American Patent: February 10, 1880, Number: 224,304,

This patent was an improvement to earlier patents issues to Henry W. Putnam of Bennington, Vermont and appears to be the only one of this style to see commercial use.  The stopper consisted of a removable metal stopper with a rubber covering that was forced into the mouth of the bottle using the typical wire bail.  The stopper was to be used in conjunction with a bottling machine that forced the detached stopper into the mouth of the bottle after it was filed with the beverage. The stopper was then secured by snapping the bail in place.  This stopper met with some level of success, but was hampered by the need to invest in a bottling machine in addition to a supply of stoppers.
Rubin Closure Rubin Closure, circ: 1884-1888, Occurs on 4 bottles, Show distribution map of bottles with the Rubin closure Put bottles using the Rubin closure on a shelf
Invented by: Max Rubin,
American Patent: November 11, 1884, Number: 307,990,

The patent was patented by Max Rubin of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.  The stopper involved a cap that drawn down onto the lip of the bottle by a twisting action.  The stopper is found on a bottled from the Albany area.
Lowell Closure Lowell Closure, circ: 1885-1890, Occurs on 1 bottle, Show distribution map of bottles with the Lowell closure Put bottles using the Lowell closure on a shelf
Invented by: George D. Corey,
American Patent: February 10, 1885, Number: 312,096,

The patent for this closure was assigned to Woods, Sherwood & Company of Lowell, Massachusetts.  The stopper was based on the Lightning closure with a stopper that tightened to the bottle as it was twisted.  The stopper is found on on a bottle marked "The Lowell Bottle Stopper."
Argus Closure Argus Closure, circ: 1885-1895, Occurs on 4 bottles, Show distribution map of bottles with the Argus closure Put bottles using the Argus closure on a shelf
Invented by: Edwin Haas,
American Patent: March 10, 1885, Number: 313,588,

This closure was a variation of bailed closures.  It consists of a cam that when depressed forces the stopper into the mouth of the bottle.  The tab on the cam come in two different configurations.  This stopper was only used on beer bottles.
Wizard Closure Wizard Closure, circ: 1885-1890, Occurs on 3 bottles, Show distribution map of bottles with the Wizard closure Put bottles using the Wizard closure on a shelf
Invented by: William Painter,
American Patent: April 14, 1885, Number: 315,655,

This closure was a variation of bailed closures.  This was William Painter's first bottle closure patent.  He would be much more successful on his later Bottle Seal and Crown Cork closures.  This stopper was only used on beer bottles.
Kent Closure Kent Closure, circ: 1885-1890, Occurs on 4 bottles, Show distribution map of bottles with the Kent closure Put bottles using the Kent closure on a shelf
Invented by: Alonzo F. Kent,
American Patent: April 14, 1885, Number 315,797,

This closure was only used by several bottles of beer.  The bottles can be identified by the the tight threads that received a metal stoppers that screwed into the lip.  The stopper was secured to the bottle by a loose fitting bail that was fitted to the neck.
White Closure White Closure, circ: 1886-1888, Occurs on 1 bottle, Show distribution map of bottles with the White closure Put bottles using the White closure on a shelf
Invented by: Frank C. White,
American Patent: March 9, 1886, Number 337,541,

This closure was only used by New Jersey beer bottler.  The bottles can be identified by two glass lugs on the neck that held a metal bands and the lack of any definable lip.  The stopper was secured to the bottle by a loose fitting bail that was fitted to the neck.
Keystone Lever Closure Keystone Lever, circ: 1886-1890, Occurs on 1 bottle, Show distribution map of bottles with the Keystone Lever closure Put bottles using the Keystone Lever closure on a shelf
Marketed by: Keystone Bottle Stopper Company,
American Patent: Based on Vom Hofe's 1875 Patents,

This closure occurs on one bottle from Northwestern Pennsylvania. It was based on Vom Hofe's 1875 patents and was marketed by the Keystone Stopper Company of Pittsburgh, PA.  The pump-like lever of the 1875 patent was replaced by a smaller triangular thumb lever.  Keystone was sued by Henry Putnum in 1889 for infringement on the lightning stopper patents awarded Charles De Quillfeldt in 1875 and reissued in 1877.  Putnam proved Vom Hofe's patents were an infringement on the tenants of the Charles De Quillfeldt patents. Keystone lost the case and was dissolved in 1890.
Bloeser Closure Bloeser Bail Closure, circ: 1888-1895, Occurs on 4 bottles, Show distribution map of bottles with the Bloeser closure Put bottles using the Bloeser closure on a shelf
Invented by: Rudolph Bloeser,
American Patent: March 6, 1888, Number: 379,149,

This stopper was consists of a wire bail with a stopper on it that flips over the bottle's lip.  The cam is a flat molded piece of metal that forces the closure into the opening of the bottle.  This stopper was used by a few bottlers in the Scranton area, where Bloeser was associated with a local glass house.
Howe Closure Howe Closure, circ: 1889-1890, Occurs on 2 bottles, Show distribution map of bottles with the Howe closure Put bottles using the Howe closure on a shelf
Invented by: Thomas B. Howe,
American Patent: June 11, 1889, Number: 405,035,

This stopper was consists of a wire bail with a stopper on it that flips over the bottle's lip and a clip secures the stopper by snapping under the lip.  The lips on these bottles are oversized tapers that have a unique shape to support the closure.  This stopper was used by two Philadelphia bottlers.
American Screw Closure American Screw Closure, circ: 1890-92, Occurs on 5 bottles, Show distribution map of bottles with the American Screw closure Put bottles using the American Screw closure on a shelf
Invented by: Henry Barrett,
American Patent: August 3, 1880, Number: 230,605,

Another English import, this stopper was never popular in the United States, however it was widely accepted in England and its colonies. A composite stopper was screwed into the lip of the bottle, which had screw threads on the inside.  The stopper was marketed by the American Screw Stopper Company, Limited, in Jersey City, which only advertised in 1891and only appears to have been used by firms in Northern New Jersey.
Siemens Closure Siemens Closure, circ: 1891-1920, Occurs on 1 bottle, Show distribution map of bottles with the Howe closure Put bottles using the Howe closure on a shelf
Invented by: Frederick Siemens,
German Patent Issued: November 27, 1891, Number: 59,915,

This stopper was consists of a wire bail with a rubber capped porcelain stopper on it that flips over the bottle's lip.  A loop engaged one end of the stopper and drew the stopper against the lip as its cam lever was tightened.  This was an improvement on Siemens' earlier patent 58, 602.  The lips on these bottles are of a double rounded collar design with the fastening wire in the groove between the two.  Although popular in Europe, this closure had very limited use in North America.
Manning Closure Manning Closure, circ: 1896-1900, Occurs on 1 bottle, Show distribution map of bottles with the Manning closure Put bottles using the Manning closure on a shelf
Invented by: Elwin W. Manning,
American Patent: May 26, 1896, Number: 561,013,

This closure is a variation of the lightning stopper.  Manning claimed his stopper was of an "improved character."  Manning was a bottler in Waverly, New York and used the stopper on his bottles.  Due to the more complex nature of the stopper, and with no clear advantages.  It is doubtful any other bottlers adopted Manning's stopper.
Gross Closure Gross Closure, circ: 1897-1902, Occurs on 1 bottle, Show distribution map of bottles with the Gross closure Put bottles using the Gross closure on a shelf
Invented by: Peter J. Gross,
American Patent: November 16, 1897, Design Number: 27,860,

This closure is a variation, in principle, of the later Thatcher stopper.  Gross must have applied for design patent because his closure would not merit a patent itself.  The only known application was on a beer bottle used by John A. Darlington of Brooklyn, New York. We were unable to locate the owner of this bottle hope that anyone who has one can check for markings that could verify the patent and manufacturer.  This was previously known as the Darlington closure.
Cunningham Closure Cunningham Closure, circ: 1897-1910, Occurs on 3 bottles, Show distribution map of bottles with the Cunningham closure Put bottles using the Cunningham closure on a shelf
Invented by: William J. Cunningham,
American Patent: May 25, 1897, Number: 583,211,

This closure is a variation of the lightning stopper.  The purported advantage was the fact that the stopper would open more freely than the typical Lightning closure.  Cunningham was a member of the Cunningham Supply Company, which supplied bottlers.
Alston Closure Alston Closure, circ: 1900-1905, Occurs on 3 bottles, Show distribution map of bottles with the Alston closure Put bottles using the Alston closure on a shelf
Invented by: John S. Alston,
American Patent: April 3, 1900, Number 646,653,
American Patent: December 31, 1901, Number 690,220,

This stopper was consists of a wire bail with an eccentric that inserts into the lip.  Only a Camden and Philadelphia bottler appears to have adopted this closure.  With the third bottle being a salesman's sample.  The lips on these bottles are exaggerated to accept the closure.  The closure appears to have had more success on fruit jars with the Alston label.
Landenberger Closure Landenberger Closure, circ: 1901-1905, Occurs on 2 bottles, Show distribution map of bottles with the Landenberger closure Put bottles using the Landenberger closure on a shelf
Invented by: Martin Landenberger,
American Patent: January 8, 1901, Number 665,689,

This closure is basically a lightning stopper, but what distinguishes it is that the stopper itself is glass and not the typical metal or porcelain.  The stoppers are known in amber and clear glass and in both cases the stopper matches the color of the bottle. 
Imperial Bottle Closure Imperial Bottle Closure, circ: 1902-1903, Occurs on 2 bottles, Show distribution map of bottles with the Imperial closure Put bottles using the Imperial closure on a shelf
Invented by: Nathaniel B. Abbott,
American Patent: July 8, 1902, Number 704,167,

This stopper of a metal cap that was secured to a flared lip on the bottle.  This was a deviation of William Painter's Crown Cork.  Painter sued Abbott in 1903 and won.  Although this stopper occurs on two bottles, it may not have been commercially produced.
Inter-seal Bottle Closure Inter-Seal Bottle Closure, circ: 1903-1906, Occurs on 1 bottle, Show distribution map of bottles with the Inter-seal closure Put bottles using the Inter-seal closure on a shelf
Invented by: William S. Dorman,
American Patent: October 6, 1903, Number 740,631,

This stopper consisted of a metallic disk that was attached to an elastic sealing material. The disk locked into grooves in side the lip of the bottle or jar.  This was a deviation of William Painter's loop seal.  A firm called the Inter-Seal Company was organized to market this closure in 1904, but is was defunct by 1906 .  Although this stopper occurs on a  sample bottle, it may not have been commercially produced.
Sani-Top Closure Kork-N-Seal Closure, circ: 1911-1945, Occurs on 1 bottle, Show distribution map of bottles with the Kork-N-Seal closure Put bottles using the Kork-N-Seal closure on a shelf
Invented by: George Albert William,
American Patent: June 5, 1906, Number 822,567,

When he cut his hand while trying to open an ginger ale bottle, George Williams vowed to invent a better closure.  He got his idea in 1901 and continued to refine it as a pass time.  He patented it in 1906, organized the Williams Sealing Corp. on October 19, 1909, refined the machinery to make the closure, and sold them commercially starting in 1911.  An initial reseller was the Illinois Glass Company in 1911 as illustrated in their catalogue of that year.  The initial factory was located in Waterbury, CN, but a factory was later opened in Decatur. IL, to be closer to the customers.  The closure became popular as a resealing device on crown top beer bottles and was being used during the Second World War.  It was used as a primary closure on medicine and cosmetic bottles.
Sani-Top Closure Sani-Top Closure, circ: 1908-1912, Occurs on 1 bottle, Show distribution map of bottles with the Sani-Top closure Put bottles using the Sani-Top closure on a shelf
Invented by: Anthony F. McDonnell,
American Patent: July 14, 1908, Number 893,008,

The inventor claimed that his new closure did not cause distortions in the neck of the bottle and better facilitated cleaning and filling.  McDonnell claims to be a "practical bottler and glass manufacturer" and owned the Scranton Glass Company of Scranton, PA; a glass jobber.  In 1910, McDonnell trade marked his closure "Santitop."

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