Bottle Attributes - Soda & Mineral Water Bottle Closures

The closure used on a bottle can say something about a bottle's age.  Regional preferences and traditions help to dictate what closures were popular and for how long. Patented stoppers can be no earlier than their submission and most were not used for very many years.

There were a great number of patented closures for soda bottles, but few were used and even fewer were successful.  The closures shown below were actually used on soda and mineral water bottles until about 1920.  Some, like the crown cork and siphon are in use today.  The most popular stoppers by era are presented first, followed by those that were less popular earliest to latest.

Cork Closure with Wire Cork, circ: pre-1600-1905,
By far the most common closure used on soda and mineral water bottles until about 1885 when the Hutchinson stopper became standard. Initially, a string or wire was used to secure the cork to the bottle. Later, a wire bail became the standard. Some bottlers still used corks into the Twentieth Century.  Corks for soda and mineral water bottles were about two inches long.  Example shows wire used to retain a cork in the bottle.
Putnam Closure Putnam Closure, circ: 1859-1905,
Invented by: Henry William Putnam,
American Patent: March 15, 1859, Number: 23,263,
American Patent Reissued: January 19, 1864, Reissue Number: 1,606,

This cork fastener was the standard used on corked soda and mineral water bottles during the1860s, 1870s and early 1880s when it was replaced with the Hutchinson stopper. The bail was reusable and the bottler was not required to rewire the cork with every refilling of the bottle.
Siphon Closure Siphon Closure, circ: 1860-1920,
This closure has patents going back until the early 1800s in both England and France.  Highly pressurized soda water was expelled up a tube through a spigot that was opened and closed by either a lever of screw based faucet.  The earliest American patents date to the mid-nineteenth century and were minor improvements to the established European designs that by that time were in the public domain.
Gravitating Closure Gravitating Closure, circ: 1864-1890, Occurs on329 bottles, Show distribution map of bottles with the Gravitating closure Put bottles using the Gravitating closure on a shelf
Invented by: Albert Albertson, John Matthews and Joseph Conner,
American Patent: October 11, 1864, Number: 44,684,
American Patent: November 1, 1864, Number: 44,912,
American Patent: August 13, 1867, Number: 67,781,
American Patent: April 15, 1873, Number: 137,941,
American Patent: October 26, 1886, Number: 351,496,

This was the first successful internal stopper.  This closure consisted of a glass rod that was tipped with a rubber nipple. The glass rod fitted into the neck of the bottle and the attached rubber nipple sealed the contents when the pressure of the carbonated contents pushed the rubber nipple against the base of the neck. To open the bottle, the glass rod was pushed down to break the seal. The bottle had to be filled upside down so that the glass rod could fall into place.  Although there are a few bottles that date to the 1860s, most date to the 1870s when improvements were made to this stopper.  Examples of bottles with this stopper occur across the United States, Canada and the Caribbean.  This stopper was replaced in popularity by the Hutchinson closure during the early 1880s.  Many of the Gravitating bottles were reused with Hutchinson stoppers as bottlers made the transition to this stopper.
Codd Closure Codd Closure, circ: 1872-1920, Occurs on 199 bottles, Show distribution map of bottles with the Codd closure Put bottles using the Codd closure on a shelf
Invented by: Hiram Codd,
English Patent: November 24, 1870, Number: 3,070,
English Patent: August 22, 1871, Number: 2,212,
American Patent: July 23, 1872, Number: 129,652,
English Patent: September 3, 1872, Number: 2,621,
American Patent: April 29, 1873, Number: 138,230,
American Patent Reissued: August 13, 1878, Reissue Number: 8,372,

This closure was introduced in North America from England.  A marble stopper in the neck was pushed up against a rubber gasket in the lip to seal the bottle.  It was marked as the Globe Stopper in England. The pressure of the carbonated beverage inside kept the marble in place. These bottles had to be filled upside down in order for the marble properly seat. The indentations in the neck kept the marble from clogging when the contents were poured out.  This closure was not nearly as popular in North America as it was in the rest of the world, but did achieve a moderate level of success.  Examples can be found throughout the period of use in similar numbers.  This bottle type had to be filled upside down.
Hutchinson Closure Hutchinson Closure, circ: 1879-1915, Occurs on over 14,000 bottles,
Invented by: Charles G. Hutchinson,
American Patent: April 8, 1879, Number: 213,992,
American Patent Reissued: June 17, 1879, Reissue Number: 8,755,
American Patent: September 16, 1879, Number: 219,729,
American Patent: March 16, 1880, Number: 225,476,

This closure was the standard in North America during the later Nineteenth and early Twentieth Centuries, but had very little market penetration in the rest of the world.  This was an improvement to Matthews' gravitating stopper and worked on the same principle. When the stopper was raised, the pressure of the carbonated contents sealed the rubber gasket against the base of the neck. Unlike Matthews, it was cheaper and more efficient to use. Also, the bottle did not have to be filled upside down. To bottle, the stopper was put in the downward position, the contents were injected into the bottle with a nozzle. This nozzle contained a hook that grabbed the top loop of the stopper and pulled it upward thus sealing the bottle.  Health laws and bottle filling automation sealed the fate of this stopper, which tended to accumulate dust and dirt above the stopper and had to be filled manually.  It was replaced by the crown cork closure did not have the sanitary problems and was well suited to automatic bottling machines, which allowed for reduced costs.
Bottle Seal Closure Bottle Seal or Baltimore Loop Seal Closure, circ: 1885-1905, Show distribution map of bottles with the Bottle Seal closure Put bottles using the Bottle Seal closure on a shelf
Invented by: William Painter,
American Patent: September 29, 1885, Number: 327,099,

This stopper enjoyed moderate success, but was more popular in some areas of than in others.  It consisted of a disk, made of a flexible material, that was inserted into a thin groove in the lip of the bottle.  It was replaced by Painter's more popular crown cork stopper.
Crown Cork Seal Closure Crown Cork Seal Closure, circ: 1892-1920,
Invented by: William Painter,
American Patent: February 2, 1892, Number: 468,226,

This stopper did not enjoy immediate success.  It consisted of a metal cap that had a crimpled edge that when compressed secured the cap to a specially designed lip.  A cork liner prevented contamination of the contents from the metal cap.  By Prohibition, it was the standard as it was easily adapted to automated bottling lines.

The following closures achieved moderate market success and were used on between 5 and 100 different bottles:

Allender Closure Allender Closure, circ: 1855-1865, Occurs on 13 bottles, Show distribution map of bottles with the Allender closure Put bottles using the Allender closure on a shelf
Invented by: Jonathan Allender,
American Patent: July 24, 1855, Number: 13,338,

This stopper is the earliest known application of an cork retainer stopper.  It consisted of a sheet metal bail that secured the cork inside the neck of the bottle.  The gauge of the metal varies greatly on this closure.  Some stoppers are impressed on the collar " ALLENDERS PATENT JULY 24 1855 / MANUF'D BY S. A. BAILEY / NEW LONDON - CT".
Albertson Closure Albertson Closure, circ: 1862-1865, Occurs on 15 bottles, Show distribution map of bottles with the Albertson closure Put bottles using the Albertson closure on a shelf
Invented by: Albert Albertson,
American Patent: August 26, 1862, Number: 36,266,
American Patent Reissued: October 30, 1866, Reissue Number: 2,386,

This stopper is the earliest known application of an internal stopper.  It consisted of a spring that pushed a disk against the inside neck of the bottle.  Being cumbersome to fill and dispense, this stopper never achieved any level of success and was not used by any bottler for an extended period of time.  The Gravitating closure was the successor product and was adopted by some of the Albertson users.
Combination Bottle Closure Combination Bottle Closure, circ: 1863-1865, Occurs on 5 bottles, Show distribution map of bottles with the Combination Bottle closure Put bottles using the Combination Bottle closure on a shelf
Invented by: William A. Shaw,
American Patent: December 17, 1861, Number: 33,964,
American Patent Reissued: November 24, 1863, Reissue Number: 1,576,

This stopper was only used in the Boston area.  All of the bottles bear the patent date and have a unique inverted lip with a groove in it.
 ABC Closure ABC Closure, circ: 1864-1867, Occurs on 11 bottles, Show distribution map of bottles with the ABC closure Put bottles using the ABC closure on a shelf
Invented by: Edward Hamilton,
American Patent: January 5, 1864, Number 41,067,
American Patent: April 5, 1864, Number 42,188,

An early stopper that consisted of a hollow soft rubber ball that was pushed into the neck of the bottle by the pressure of the contents.  The patent was assigned to the Automatic Bottle Closing Company of New Haven, Connecticut and all known bottles bear the "A. B. C. Co." embossing.  These bottles are distinctive in shape and are also marked with the patent date.  A number of different bottlers experimented with this closure, but none adopted it.
Lightning Closure Lightning Closure, circ: 1875-1910,
Invented by: Charles De Quillfeldt, assigned to Karl Hutter,
American Patent: January 5, 1875, Number: 158,406,
American Patent Reissued: June 5, 1877, Reissue Number: 7,722,

This stopper revolutionized beer bottling and was an almost instant success for Karl Hutter who acquired the patent rights and popularized this stopper when it was reissued in 1877. In 1878, Henry Putnam also acquired and interest in this stopper and in 1882 adapted it for use on fruit jars. There were many imitators of this patent over the years, but they all worked on the same principle of leveraging a rubber disk into the lip of the bottle to make a seal.  This closure was occasionally used on soda and mineral water bottles and most often on quart sized bottles.
Christian Closure Christin Closure, circ: 1875-1880, Occurs on 24 bottles, Show distribution map of bottles with the Christin closure Put bottles using the Christin closure on a shelf
Invented by: Arthur Christin,
American Patent: April 13, 1875, Number 161,863,

This stopper was an adaptation of the Gravitating closure.  The variation was that the stopper itself was composed of a composite rubber material instead of the glass rod used in the Gravitating stopper.  Also unlike the Gravitating it had an imbedded rubber ring in the lip of the bottle where the stopper wedged against creating the seal.
Bullet Closure Bullet Closure, circ: 1879-1900, Occurs on 5 bottles, Show distribution map of bottles with the Bullet closure Put bottles using the Bullet closure on a shelf
Invented by: Henry Barrett & John Bailey,
American Patent: May 6, 1879, Number: 214,987,

This was another English import that was very popular in England and the British Empire, but never achieved success in North America.  Two examples are known form Philadelphia and the rest are from Canada.  The stopper on the example is sitting on the top of the bottle.  Normally, the stopper would be in the neck to make the seal.
Susemihl Closure Susemihl Closure, circ: 1879-1885, Occurs on 8 bottles, Show distribution map of bottles with the Susemihl closure Put bottles using the Susemihl closure on a shelf
Invented by: Herman Susemihl,
American Patent: July 8, 1879, Number: 217,425,

This closure was another variation of the bail stopper.  The stopper consisted of a brass disk with a rubber disk that was attached to a securing wire around the neck on one side and could swing over the top of the lip and was secured by a clip on the other side.  This closure was marketed as the "favorite Stopper."
American Screw Closure American Screw Closure, circ: 1880, Occurs on 21 bottles, Show distribution map of bottles with the American Screw closure Put bottles using the American Screw closure on a shelf
Invented by: Henry Barrett,
American Patent: August 3, 1880, Number: 230,605,

Another English import, this stopper was never popular in the United States, however it was widely accepted in England and its colonies. A composite stopper was screwed into the lip of the bottle, which had screw threads on the inside. In the United States this closure was known as the "American Screw Stopper."
Roorbach 1883 Closure Roorbach 1883 Closure, circ: 1883-1885, Occurs on 8 bottles, Show distribution map of bottles with the Roobach 1883 closure Put bottles using the Roorbach 1883 closure on a shelf
Invented by: William L. Roobach,
American Patent: February 20, 1883, Number: 272,775,

This closure was the first successful idea of William Roorbach and was only used in the metropolitan Philadelphia area.  It was quickly replaced by Roorbach's 1885 patents, which were much more successful.  The stopper was a solid marble that sealed against an imbedded rubber washer in the lip.  These bottles also have two indents near the base of the bottle where the marble would lodge when pouring the contents out of the bottle.
Sykes Closure Sykes Closure, circ: 1883-1885, Occurs on 9 bottles, Show distribution map of bottles with the Sykes closure Put bottles using the Sykes closure on a shelf
Invented by: Richard Sykes and William W. Macvay,
English Patent: February 22, 1877, Number: 738,

American Patent: May 15, 1883, Number: 277,758,
This was another English import.  This closure was a variation of the Codd closure.  Instead of the marble being secured in the neck, there were indentations in the base that held the marble when the contents were being poured out.  Another improvement was a soft metal washer that screwed into the lip of the bottle and could be removed to extract the marble.  All of the American bottles were manufactured at the Hawley Glass Works in Northeast Pennsylvania.
Thatcher Closure Thatcher Closure, circ: 1883-1895, Occurs on 29 bottles, Show distribution map of bottles with the Thatcher closure Put bottles using the Thatcher closure on a shelf
Invented by: Frederick B. Thatcher and Joseph W. Johnson,
American Patent: August 21, 1883, Number: 283,436,
American Patent: March 3, 1885, Number: 313,253,

This stopper was was a deviation of earlier bail stoppers and was only used in the New England area.  It was one of the few bail style closures that was used on soda and mineral water bottles.  The latter patent was assigned to the Aetna Stopper Company of Pawtucket, Rhode Island.
Stewart Closure Stewart Closure, circ: 1885-1890, Occurs on 8 bottles, Show distribution map of bottles with the Stewarts closure Put bottles using the Stewart closure on a shelf
Invented by: William Stewart,
American Patent: Jun 16, 1885, Number: 320,189,
American Patent: April 6, 1886, Number: 339,592,

This closure was a floating ball stopper.  The floating ball stopper sealed against a rubber washer secured in the lip of the bottle.  This stopper was a competitor to the Twitchell Floating Ball Stopper, which was much more successful.
Roorbach 1885 Closure Roorbach 1885 or Twitchell Floating Ball Closure, circ: 1885-1905, Occurs on 100 bottles, Show distribution map of bottles with the Roorbach 1885 closure Put bottles using the Roorbach 1885 closure on a shelf
Invented by: William L. Roorbach, Selden Twitchell,
American Patent: June 23, 1885, Number: 320,701,
American Patent: August 4, 1885, Number: 323,737,
American Patent: April 10, 1888, Number: 380,957

This stopper was an improvement to Roorbach's 1883 patent. The improvement consisted of a floating hollow composite rubber ball that pressed against a rubber washer imbedded in the lip of the bottle.  Examples of this closure can be found across the United States and bottles often have the patent dates embossed in a ring around the base of the bottle and have the letters, "F. B. S." for "Floating Ball Stopper" on the base.  The stopper was marketed by Twitchell & Brother, a bottlers supply company of Philadelphia.
Riley Closure Riley Screw Closure, circ: 1885-1915, Occurs on 19 bottles, Show distribution map of bottles with the Riley closure Put bottles using the Riley closure on a shelf
Invented by: Frederic George Riley,
English Patent: July 7, 1885, Number: 8,198,

This closure was another English import that never became successful.  Riley improved the inside screw stopper by adding a protrusion to the top of the stopper that allowed for easier opening.
 Rylands Acme Closure Rylands' Acme Closure, circ: 1886-1900, Occurs on 5 bottles, Show distribution map of bottles with the Ryland's Acme closure Put bottles using the Rylands Acme closure on a shelf
Invented by: Dan Rylands,
English Patent: February 8, 1886, Number: 1,811,

This closure was sold by Dan Rylands of Barnsley, England.  This closure was an improvement to Rylands earlier Reliance patent.  The improvement consisted of a dimple in the neck.  This dimple and the lugs were meant to restrain the marble when the bottle was being cleaned with a brush.
Niagara Closure Niagara Closure, circ: 1887-1930, Occurs on 15 bottles, Show distribution map of bottles with the Niagara closure Put bottles using the Niagara closure on a shelf
Registered by: Barnett & Foster,
English Registration: January 15, 1887, Number: Rd 65,433,

This closure was sold by Barnett & Foster of London, England.  This closure was not patented, but the design was registered.  It was an improvement on the Codd closure, which consisted of lugs on both sides of the neck to hold the marble stopper when the contents were poured out.
Hutter Closure Hutter Closure, circ: 1893-1920,
Invented by: Karl Hutter,
American Patent: February 7, 1893, Number 491,113,
American Patent: June 16, 1896, Number 562,225,
American Patent: April 13, 1897, Number 580,456,

This stopper was an improvement to the Lightning stopper and was extremely popular and eventually replaced the Lightning as the preferred beer bottle stopper. A tapered porcelain plug was fitted with a rubber washer on the bottom and forced into the lip of the bottle to seal it. This stopper was replaced with the crown cork. It was rarely used on soda and mineral water bottles and was mostly used on quart sized bottles.
Thomas Closure Thomas or Thasmo Closure, circ: 1895-1905, Occurs on 32 bottles, Show distribution map of bottles with the Thasmo closure Put bottles using the Thasmo closure on a shelf
Invented by: Frederic R. H. Thomas,
American Patent: April 23, 1895, Number: 537,946,
American Patent: December 10, 1895, Number: 551,102,

This closure was another improvement to the glass ball stopper that sealed against a rubber disk in the lip of the bottle.  The improvement was that the marble jammed in the shoulder of the bottle when the contents were poured out.
Strebel's Globe Closure Strebel's Globe Closure, circ: 1903-1920, Occurs on 10 bottles, Show distribution map of bottles with the Strebel closure Put bottles using the Strebel closure on a shelf
Invented by: Louis Strebel,
American Patent: April 14, 1903, Number 725,505,

This stopper was a slight deviation from the Hutter closure.  Instead of the inverted cone shaped porcelain stopper of Hutter, this one has a rounded top.  This was an accommodation for Strebel's bottling machine patented number 723,065 on March 17, 1903.  According to the patent, the stopper was meant for carbonated beverages or for use on bottles that used the Hutter stopper.  The stopper was advertised as the "Globe" and together with his bottling machine were advertised as late as 1915.  
Strebel Closure Strebel Closure, circ: 1903-1905, Occurs on 6 bottles, Show distribution map of bottles with the Strebel closure Put bottles using the Strebel closure on a shelf
Invented by: Louis Strebel,
American Patent: May 12, 1903, Number 728,142,

This stopper was a slight deviation from the Lightning closure.  The variance being in the stopper portion of the closure, which consist of a different style of the loop that holds the eccentric.  This closure was also connect to one of Strebel's bottling machines.  According to the patent a "forked shoe" in the bottling machine would engage the stopper to lift and close it.  The stopper and machine were intended for the bottling of carbonated beverages.
Ground Glass Closure Ground Glass Closure, circ: 1905-1920, Occurs on 17 bottles, Show distribution map of bottles with the Ground Glass closure Put bottles using the Ground Glass closure on a shelf
This closure was utilized on later mineral and spring water bottles of a gallon and larger sizes.
Metal Cap Closure Metal Cap Closure, circ: 1850-1920, Occurs on 30 bottles, Show distribution map of bottles with the Metal Cap closure Put bottles using the Metal Cap closure on a shelf
This closure was utilized on syrup bottles that serviced soda fountains.  These caps could be used to measure the syrup that was placed in the glass prior to filling it with carbonated water.

The following closures were used to seal soda bottles, but never achieved and level of success or market penetration. They occur on from 1 to 5 bottles. Some were only used by the inventor.

Stone Closure Stone Closure, circ: 1861, Occurs on 1 bottle, Show distribution map of bottles with the Stone closure Put bottles using the Stone closure on a shelf
Invented by: Amasa Stone,
American Patent: August 7, 1855, Number: 13,402,
American Patent: June 16, 1861, Number: 32,590,

This 1861 patent is actually for a device to insert an inside screw cap into the bottle and utilized Stone's 1855 patent for a device to tool the threads into the neck of the bottle.   Only one example has been found and it like that it was a salesman's sample as it is not embossed with a bottlers name.
Robinson 1865 Closure Robinson Closure, circ: 1865, Occurs on 1 bottle, Show distribution map of bottles with the Robinson 1865 closure Put bottles using the Robinson 1865 closure on a shelf
Invented by: Robert Robinson,
American Patent: March 14, 1865, Number: 46,864,

This closure was the first of two stoppers that were attempted by Robert Robinson of Brooklyn and has to be the most impractical of the stoppers ever to see commercial use.  It consisted of cup that covered the neck that flared to about two inches.  Inside the neck was rubber disk that was attached to a hinged metal fingers that pressed against the outward flaring neck and pulled the rubber disk into the base of the neck securing the contents.  Only one example has ever been found and it is damaged.
Robinson Closure 1867 Robinson Closure, circ: 1867, Occurs on 1 bottle, Show distribution map of bottles with the Robinson 1867 closure Put bottles using the Robinson closure on a shelf
Invented by: Robert Robinson,
American Patent: April 16, 1867, Number: 63,942,

This closure was the second commercial application by Robert Robinson of Brooklyn.  The stopper consisted of a glass rod that was covered at on end with a composition material.  The stopper sealed the content when it was wedged in the neck of the bottle.. .
Wattis Closure Wattis Closure, circ: 1868, Occurs on 1 bottle, Show distribution map of bottles with the Wattis closure Put bottles using the Wattis closure on a shelf
Invented by: Edward Wattis, Jr.,
American Patent: January 21, 1868, Number: 73,680
,
This patent is actually for attaching metal threads to a glass bottle. Only one example has been found and it is likey that it was a salesman's sample as it is not embossed with a bottlers name.  This closure is more commonly found on whiskey flasks embossed with Wattis' name on the base.
Schultz Closure Schultz Closure, circ: 1872, Occurs on 1 bottle, Show distribution map of bottles with the Schultz closure Put bottles using the Schultz closure on a shelf
Invented by: Peter E. Malmstrom and Paul E. Dummer,
American Patent: February 20, 1872, Number: 123,920,

This closure appears on one bottle of F. Solyer of Galveston, Texas and is marked with the name of Carl H. Schultz, who was a mineral water manufacturer in New York City and perhaps was trying to expand into the bottling supply business.  This closure was patented by Peter Malmstrom and Paul Dummer both of New York city.  The relationships between these two individuals and Schultz is not known.  It is interesting that Schultz did not use the stopper that bears his name.
Schrink Closure Schrink Closure, circ: 1875, Occurs on 1 bottle, Show distribution map of bottles with the Schrink 1875 closure Put bottles using the Schrink 1875closure on a shelf
Invented by: John Schrink,
American Patent: June 22, 1875, Number: 164,879,

This closure was a variation on the cork stopper. It was only used by a Wisconsin firm.   It consisted of a glass plug stopper with a composition band that was forced into the mouth of the bottle by a Putnam style wire bail. The composition band, between the stopper and the mouth of the bottle, created the seal. The bottle is indistinguishable from a Putnam closure without the glass stopper.
Kelley Closure Kelley Closure, circ: 1878, Occurs on 4 bottle, Show distribution map of bottles with the Kelley 1878 closure Put bottles using the Kelley closure on a shelf
Invented by: William H. Kelley,
American Patent: February 5, 1878, Number: 199,980,

This closure was a variation of the gravitating stopper. It was only used by Ephraim L. Billings of Sacramento, California.   It consisted of a glass teardrop shaped stopper that sealed against a rubber washer in the neck of the bottle.  The bottle is accentuated by having a square neck.  It is not known how Kelley of Cleveland, Ohio and Billings of Sacramento were related.
Anderson Closure Anderson Closure, circ: 1879-1880, Occurs on 1 bottle, Show distribution map of bottles with the Anderson closure Put bottles using the Anderson closure on a shelf
Invented by: Henry Blossom Anderson,
American Patent: November 11, 1879, Number: 221,491,

This closure was a different application of a ball stopper and wire bail stopper.  The stopper consisted of a rubber gasket cemented in the lip.  On the top of the bottle a round glass or pottery marble sat and sat in the rubber gasket forming the seal.  This marble was held in place with a wire bail mechanism.  This closure only appears to have been used by Anderson himself in Saint Louis.
Rylands Valve Closure Rylands' Valve Closure, circ: 1881-1890, Occurs on 4 bottles, Show distribution map of bottles with the Rylands Valve closure Put bottles using the Rylands Valve closure on a shelf
Invented by: Hiram Codd and Dan Rylands,
English Patent: July 8, 1881, Number: 3,252,
English Patent: October 25, 1882, Number: 2,118,
English Patent: 1882, Number: 3,525,
American Patent: January 9, 1883, Number: 270,392,
English Patent: November 19, 1883, Number: 5,445,
English Patent: November 20, 1884, Number: 15,281,
English Patent: January, 1885, Number: 348,
English Patent: January 14, 1887, Number: 649,
English Patent: January 20, 1887, Number: 876,
American Patent: May 24, 1887, Number: 363,768,
English Patent: July 12, 1887, Number: 9,771,
American Patent: January 24, 1888, Number: 376,916,

This closure was sold by Dan Rylands of Barnsley, England.  This closure consisted of a glass valve with rubber washer that was on the side of the neck.  Releasing the valve relieved the pressure and allowed the marble stopper to fall freely from its seal in the lip.  This bottle was only used by the Tahiti Lemonade Works and its successor the Tahiti Lemonade Works Company in Sunny South on Oahu Island in Hawaii.
Rylands Reliance Closure Rylands' Reliance Closure, circ: 1884-1890, Occurs on 1 bottle, Show distribution map of bottles with the Rylands Reliance closure Put bottles using the Rylands' Reliance closure on a shelf
Invented by: Dan Rylands,
English Patent: Unknown,

This closure was sold by Dan Rylands of Barnsley, England.  This closure was a deviation of the Codd closure with two smaller lugs on the side of the bottle.  This bottle was only used by the Tahiti Lemonade Works in Sunny South on Oahu Island in Hawaii.
Beardsley Closure Beardsley Closure, circ: 1885, Occurs on 2 bottle, Show distribution map of bottles with the Beardsley closure Put bottles using the Beardsley closure on a shelf
Invented by: William Beardsley,
American Patent: May 12, 1885, Number: 317,705,

This closer was only used by its inventor William Beardsley.  It was also based on a glass marble that sealed the contents.  In this case, the stopper sealed against a screw on cap that had a hole in it.  There were indentations on the side of the bottle that held the marble as the contents were being poured from the bottle.
Rylands Bulb Closure Rylands' Bulb Closure, circ: 1885-1890, Occurs on 2 bottles, Show distribution map of bottles with the Rylands Bulb closure Put bottles using the Rylands' Bulb closure on a shelf
Invented by: Hiram Codd,
English Patent: October 16, 1885, Number: 12,337,

This closure was sold by Dan Rylands of Barnsley, England.  This closure was an improvement by Hiram Codd to his popular Codd stopper, which was coming off its patent protection.  The improvement consisted of large bulb to restrain the marble instead of lugs on the side of the neck.  Rylands' use of this closure is questionable.  This closure was only used by two bottlers in Hawaii.
Rylands Premier Closure Rylands' Premier Closure, circ: 1885-1890, Occurs on 2 bottles, Show distribution map of bottles with the Rylands Premier closure Put bottles using the Rylands' Premier closure on a shelf
Invented by: Dan Rylands,
English Patent: Unknown,

This closure was sold by Dan Rylands of Barnsley, England.  This closure was an improvement to the Codd stopper and was first used while Codd and Rylands were still partners.  Unlike the Codd, the marble stopper was not trapped in the neck, but could fall to the base of the bottle.  Some versions have the indentations at the base of the bottle.  This closure was only used by two bottlers in Hawaii.
Rylands Safe Groove Closure Rylands' Safe Groove Closure, circ: 1886-1915, Occurs on 1 bottle, Show distribution map of bottles with the Rylands Safe Groove closure Put bottles using the Rylands' Safe Groove closure on a shelf
Invented by: Dan Rylands,
English Patent: Unknown,

This patent was not for the closure, but for the tool used to form the groove in the lip that held the rubber gasket.  Bottles with this marking were sold by Dan Rylands of Barnsley, England.  Rylands filed the patent because he lost a lawsuit brought by Hiram Codd for infringement of Codd's 1873 patent for a tool to make the groove.  Unless so marked, Safe Groove bottles are undistinguishable from the normal Codd or globe closures. This closure was only used by one bottler in California.
Lloyd Closure Lloyd Closure, circ: 1886-1895, Occurs on 4 bottle, Show distribution map of bottles with the Lloyd's 1886 closure Put bottles using the Lloyd closure on a shelf
Invented by: Edwin L. Lloyd,
American Patent: July  20, 1886, Number: 345,910,

This closure was a variation of bailed closures.  The stopper was attached to the bail via a loop on it.  This stopper was only used on soda bottles unlike his earlier stopper that was used on beer bottles.
Haley Closure Haley's Automatic Bottle Stopper, circ: 1888-1890, Occurs on 2 bottles, Show distribution map of bottles with the Haley Automatic Bottle Stopper closure Put bottles using the Niagara closure on a shelf
Invented by: Charles C. Haley,
American Patent Applied: aprox: December 22, 1887,

This closure was invented by Charles C. Haley.  This bottle was to be used with Haley's Duplex Filling Machine, which he applied for a patent on December 22, 1887.  This filling machine mentions bottles with internal stoppers and Haley advertised his new stopper with his new filling machine in the January 1, 1888 in the National Bottlers' Gazette.  He stated that both were patented, even though the filling machine was not granted a patent until over a year later on January 29, 1889.  We have to assume that the patent for the bottle was never granted.  The stopper was comprised of a "half sphere of hard rubber, fitted with an ingenious valve stem" that allowed the pressure to be relieved when pressed.  The stopper was sealed against a rubber washer in the lip of the bottle.  Both examples of Haley's that used this stopper had indentations in the base of the bottle.
Haley Closure H. & H. H. Closure, circ: 1889-1895, Occurs on 2 bottle, Show distribution map of bottles with the Haley's closure Put bottles using the Haley closure on a shelf
Invented by: Charles C. Haley,
American Patent: April 23, 1889, Number: 402,078,

American Patent: June 17, 1890, Number: 430,285,
This stopper was a variation of the Hutchinson closure.  The improvement was in that the stopper had two loops that attached to a disk that could swing, unlike the Hutchinson disk, which was fixed.  Both patents were assigned to Henry A. Haussling and Adell A. Haley, both of Newark New Jersey.  This stopper was marketed by the E. Berghausen Chemical Company of Cincinnati, Ohio.
Roorbach 1890 Stopper Roorbach 1890 Closure, circ: 1890, Occurs on 1 bottle, Show distribution map of bottles with the Roorbach's 1890 closure Put bottles using the Roorbach 1890 closure on a shelf
Invented by: William L. Roorbach and George W. Tucker,
American Patent: June 3, 1890, Number: 429,482,

This stopper was a variation of the Gravitating closure.  The improvement was in that the stopper was made of a composite rubber material and floated instead of sank like glass stopper of the Gravitating closure.  This stopper was only used by George W. Tucker of Philadelphia, who was on of the patentees.  This stopper became the Trademark of the Pennsylvania Bottling & Supply Company of Philadelphia and is embossed on their bottles.
Lo Bue Stopper Lo Bue Closure, circ: 1895-1905, Occurs on 1 bottle, Show distribution map of bottles with the Lo Bue closure Put bottles using the Lo Bue closure on a shelf
Invented by: Unknown,
American Patent: Unknown,

This stopper was a variation of the bullet closure.  It has a glass bullet shaped stopper with a rubber gasket attached to one end that sealed the contents when it wedged in the neck of the bottle.  This stopper was only used by Lo Bue & Company of Buffalo.

Want more information? Get a book: 
Book Image  Soda and Beer Bottle Closures 1850-1910 - David Graci 2003 - This book covers the subject of mainly American soda and beer bottle closures that were used by bottlers and brewers. A decade by decade history is provided as well as numerous illustrations and pictures. $24.95

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Codd's §tuff Codd's §tuff  - Mark Potten 2007 - An interactive encyclopedia of Hiram Codd's Globe stopper bottles and most other known variations. This CD-based web site covers Hiram Codd's life, a summary of over 150 known UK mineral water bottles, original patents and advertisements, marble manufacture, dating old bottles, bottle makers, cleaning, fake Codd bottles and much, much more. £15.00

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